Logging Best Practices#
Logging is not a new concept and is in no way unique to Python. Logfiles have existed for decades, and there’s little reason to reinvent the wheel in our little world. Therefore, let’s rely on proven tools as much as possible and do only the bare minimum inside Python applications.
A simple but powerful approach is to log to unbuffered standard out and let other tools take care of the rest.
That can be your terminal window while developing; it can be systemd redirecting your log entries to syslogd and rotating them using logrotate; or it can be your cluster manager forwarding them to an obscenely expensive log aggregator service.
It doesn’t matter where or how your application runs – it just works, and the reason why the popular Twelve-Factor App methodology suggests just that.
Canonical Log Lines#
Generally speaking, having as few log entries per request as possible is a good thing. The less noise, the more insights.
structlog’s ability to bind data to loggers incrementally – plus loggers that are local to the current execution context – can help you to minimize the output to a single log entry.
At Stripe, this concept is called Canonical Log Lines.
Pretty Printing vs. Structured Output#
Colorful and pretty printed log messages are nice during development when you locally run your code.
However, in production you should emit structured output (like JSON) which is a lot easier to parse by log aggregators. Since you already log in a structured way, writing JSON output with structlog comes naturally. You can even generate structured exception tracebacks. This makes analyzing errors easier, since log aggregators can render JSON much better than multiline strings with a lot escaped quotation marks.
Here is a simple example of how you can have pretty logs during development and JSON output when your app is running in a production context:
>>> import sys >>> import structlog >>> >>> shared_processors = [ ... # Processors that have nothing to do with output, ... # e.g., add timestamps or log level names. ... ] >>> if sys.stderr.isatty(): ... # Pretty printing when we run in a terminal session. ... # Automatically prints pretty tracebacks when "rich" is installed ... processors = shared_processors + [ ... structlog.dev.ConsoleRenderer(), ... ] ... else: ... # Print JSON when we run, e.g., in a Docker container. ... # Also print structured tracebacks. ... processors = shared_processors + [ ... structlog.processors.dict_tracebacks, ... structlog.processors.JSONRenderer(), ... ] >>> structlog.configure(processors)
Nowadays you usually don’t want your log files in compressed archives distributed over dozens – if not thousands – of servers or cluster nodes. You want them in a single location. Parsed, indexed, and easy to search.
The way it works is that you have local log shippers like Filebeat that parse your log files and forward the log entries to your Logstash server. Logstash parses the log entries and stores them in Elasticsearch. Finally, you can view and search them in Kibana.
If your log entries consist of a JSON dictionary, this is fairly easy and efficient.
All you have to do is to tell Logstash either that your log entries are prepended with a timestamp from
TimeStamper or the name of your timestamp field.
Graylog goes one step further. It not only supports everything those above do (and then some); you can also directly log JSON entries towards it – optionally even through an AMQP server (like RabbitMQ) for better reliability. Additionally, Graylog’s Extended Log Format (GELF) allows for structured data which makes it an obvious choice to use together with structlog.