Python Standard Library¶
Ideally, structlog should be able to be used as a drop-in replacement for standard library’s
logging by wrapping it.
In other words, you should be able to replace your call to
logging.getLogger() by a call to
structlog.get_logger() and things should keep working as before (if structlog is configured right, see Suggested Configuration below).
Concrete Bound Logger¶
To make structlog’s behavior less magicy, it ships with a standard library-specific wrapper class that has an explicit API instead of improvising:
It behaves exactly like the generic
- it’s slightly faster due to less overhead,
- has an explicit API that mirrors the log methods of standard library’s
- hence causing less cryptic error messages if you get method names wrong.
structlog comes with a few standard library-specific processors:
- Checks the log entry’s log level against the configuration of standard library’s logging. Log entries below the threshold get silently dropped. Put it at the beginning of your processing chain to avoid expensive operations happen in the first place.
- Adds the name of the logger to the event dictionary under the key
- Adds the log level to the event dictionary under the key
- This processes and formats positional arguments (if any) passed to log methods in the same way the
loggingmodule would do, e.g.
logger.info("Hello, %s", name).
A basic configuration to output structured logs in JSON format looks like this:
import structlog structlog.configure( processors=[ structlog.stdlib.filter_by_level, structlog.stdlib.add_logger_name, structlog.stdlib.add_log_level, structlog.stdlib.PositionalArgumentsFormatter(), structlog.processors.TimeStamper(fmt='iso'), structlog.processors.StackInfoRenderer(), structlog.processors.format_exc_info, structlog.processors.JSONRenderer() ], context_class=dict, logger_factory=structlog.stdlib.LoggerFactory(), wrapper_class=structlog.stdlib.BoundLogger, cache_logger_on_first_use=True, )
To make your program behave like a proper 12 factor app that outputs only JSON to
stdout, configure the
logging module like this:
import logging import sys handler = logging.StreamHandler(sys.stdout) root_logger = logging.getLogger() root_logger.addHandler(handler)
If you plan to hook up the logging output to logstash, as suggested in Logging Best Practices, the simplest approach is to configure
logstash-forwarder to pick up the output from your application.
To achieve this, configure your process supervisor (such as
supervisord) to store the output in a file, and have
logstash-forwarder monitor that file to ship it to the central log collection server.
This approach also applies to other centralized logging solutions.